On this day

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Joseph Cosgrove

Joseph Cosgrove

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On the same day in 2008 American super-swimmer Michael Phelps wins 3 gold medals, all in world record time, in the one day at the Beijing Olympics; 200m I/M* (1:54.23), 200m butterfly (1.52.03) and 4 x 200m freestyle relay (6:58.56)

And again 8 yrs later 2016 American swimmer Michael Phelps ends his career at the Rio Olympics as part of the winning 4x100 medley relay, his record 23rd gold medal 🍾

* You'll here the shorthand "IM" used often during the Olympics. It's an abbreviation for the individual medley event in swimming, in which swimmers use all four competitive strokes: butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle, in that order.
 

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On the same day in 2008 American super-swimmer Michael Phelps wins 3 gold medals, all in world record time, in the one day at the Beijing Olympics; 200m I/M* (1:54.23), 200m butterfly (1.52.03) and 4 x 200m freestyle relay (6:58.56)

And again 8 yrs later 2016 American swimmer Michael Phelps ends his career at the Rio Olympics as part of the winning 4x100 medley relay, his record 23rd gold medal 🍾

* You'll here the shorthand "IM" used often during the Olympics. It's an abbreviation for the individual medley event in swimming, in which swimmers use all four competitive strokes: butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle, in that order.
Joe, my 15 year old son is a competitive year round swimmer and my 18 year old daughter was (Ends this week, but she will swim Master's Level Competitions) she is off to LSU (Louisiana State University) next week. They swim year round, really hardcore practices, amazing the work swimmers put in. Michael Phelps, a swimming god, he is superman.

It can be 20 degrees out in the winter and they are in the pool!
 
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Joseph Cosgrove

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15 August 1960 Congo Brazzaville became independent.
Big deal, I hear you say.
Big deal! Big deal? Yes it is a big deal.
Because it was French, and not Belgian. In case anyone was getting mixed up with Zaire* (which is next door).
So I'll tell you what the big deal is about. I'm working on a new project , as of yesterday, called MS Power BI. It is all to do with charts and the like, a lot different from Excel.
So I'm working on a chart to show the amount of African countries which became independent in 1960, I have to go shopping tomorrow with Erika, so I'm hoping to be able to put something out on Monday.

*Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo also became independent in the same year.
In Fact the Central African Republic celebrated its independence only two days ago on the 13th, in 1960.
 
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15 August 1960 Congo Brazzaville became independent.
Big deal, I hear you say.
Big deal! Big deal? Yes it is a big deal.
Because it was French, and not Belgian. In case anyone was getting mixed up with Zaire* (which is next door).
So I'll tell you what the big deal is about. I'm working on a new project , as of yesterday, called MS Power BI. It is all to do with charts and the like, a lot different from Excel.
So I'm working on a chart to show the amount of African countries which became independent in 1960, I have to go shopping tomorrow with Erika, so I'm hoping to be able to put something out on Monday.

*Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo also became independent in the same year.
In Fact the Central African Republic celebrated its independence only two days ago on the 13th, in 1960.
1597642208667.png

So that is what I was working on. The only thing that no-one told me is that in order for me to be able to publish the data i.e. the interactive map and the two interactive charts (the rest is just the tools in which to prepare it which you will not see once it is published ) is that I have to have a company email address and not an individual one.
All that hard work and effort just to show everyone (if anyone is even interested :oops::rolleyes:) that 1960 is referred to as the Year of Africa because of a series of events that took place during that year—mainly the independence of seventeen African nations—that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent.
I mean before General lieutenant colonel Charles de Gaulle started handing out Independence (the Brits did the same) left, right and centre, Napoleon had done the same.

It was my first attempt at working with MS Power BI, so it is far from perfect. But I do intend to master it.

List of African countries â–¶ and their dates of ind
 
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Joseph Cosgrove

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On this day 18th of August 1920 Women* in the US can vote 🍾🥂
Thanks to the Suffragettes. The whole deal was cut by one (1) vote :

Tap â–¶ here

Albeit slightly behind the kiwis ( who now have a lady PM): Although a number of other territories enfranchised women before 1893, New Zealand can justly claim to be the first self-governing country to grant the vote to all adult women.

What better to celebrate with a Chang and Sir Paul & wings:

 
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Joseph Cosgrove

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View attachment 6421

So that is what I was working on. The only thing that no-one told me is that in order for me to be able to publish the data i.e. the interactive map and the two interactive charts (the rest is just the tools in which to prepare it which you will not see once it is published ) is that I have to have a company email address and not an individual one.
All that hard work and effort just to show everyone (if anyone is even interested :oops::rolleyes:) that 1960 is referred to as the Year of Africa because of a series of events that took place during that year—mainly the independence of seventeen African nations—that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent.
I mean before General lieutenant colonel Charles de Gaulle started handing out Independence (the Brits did the same) left, right and centre, Napoleon had done the same.

It was my first attempt at working with MS Power BI, so it is far from perfect. But I do intend to master it.

List of African countries â–¶ and their dates of ind
I doubt if this will interest anyone, but I was supposed to have a Webinar on MS Power BI this morning, completely free. Great, so I cut my gym time by half and logged on. The first thing I get is the guy saying that his courses are not $10, 000. They're not $1,500. They're not...
In the end they ARE $97 x 3.
That guy owes me half an hour's gym time.
 
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THIS DAY IN HISTORY

AUGUST 25


Paris is liberated after four years of Nazi occupation


1944August 25
Paris is liberated after four years of Nazi occupation
Frank Scherschel/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

After more than four years of Nazi occupation, Paris is liberated by the French 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. German resistance was light, and General Dietrich von Choltitz, commander of the German garrison, defied an order by Adolf Hitler to blow up Paris’ landmarks and burn the city to the ground before its liberation. Choltitz signed a formal surrender that afternoon, and on August 26, Free French General Charles de Gaulle led a joyous liberation march down the Champs d’Elysees.
READ MORE: The Pictures that Defined World War II
Paris fell to Nazi Germany on June 14, 1940, one month after the German Wehrmacht stormed into France. Eight days later, France signed an armistice with the Germans, and a puppet French state was set up with its capital at Vichy. Elsewhere, however, General Charles de Gaulle and the Free French kept fighting, and the Resistance sprang up in occupied France to resist Nazi and Vichy rule.
The French 2nd Armored Division was formed in London in late 1943 with the express purpose of leading the liberation of Paris during the Allied invasion of France. In August 1944, the division arrived at Normandy under the command of General Jacques-Philippe Leclerc and was attached to General George S. Patton’s 3rd U.S. Army. By August 18, Allied forces were near Paris, and workers in the city went on strike as Resistance fighters emerged from hiding and began attacking German forces and fortifications.
At his headquarters two miles inland from the Normandy coast, Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower had a dilemma. Allied planners had concluded that the liberation of Paris should be delayed so as to not divert valuable resources away from important operations elsewhere. The city could be encircled and then liberated at a later date.

On August 21, Eisenhower met with de Gaulle and told him of his plans to bypass Paris. De Gaulle urged him to reconsider, assuring him that Paris could be reclaimed without difficulty. The French general also warned that the powerful communist faction of the Resistance might succeed in liberating Paris, thereby threatening the re-establishment of a democratic government. De Gaulle politely told Eisenhower that if his advance against Paris was not ordered, he would send Leclerc’s 2nd Armored Division into the city himself.
On August 22, Eisenhower agreed to proceed with the liberation of Paris. The next day, the 2nd Armored Division advanced on the city from the north and the 4th Infantry Division from the south. Meanwhile, in Paris, the forces of German General Dietrich von Choltitz were fighting the Resistance and completing their defenses around the city. Hitler had ordered Paris defended to the last man, and demanded that the city not fall into Allied hands except as “a field of ruins.” Choltitz dutifully began laying explosives under Paris’ bridges and many of its landmarks, but disobeyed an order to commence the destruction. He did not want to go down in history as the man who had destroyed the “City of Light”—Europe’s most celebrated city.
The 2nd Armored Division ran into heavy German artillery, taking heavy casualties, but on August 24 managed to cross the Seine and reach the Paris suburbs. There, they were greeted by enthusiastic civilians who besieged them with flowers, kisses, and wine. Later that day, Leclerc learned that the 4th Infantry Division was poised to beat him into Paris proper, and he ordered his exhausted men forward in a final burst of energy. Just before midnight on August 24, the 2nd Armored Division reached the HĂłtel de Ville in the heart of Paris.

German resistance melted away during the night. Most of the 20,000 troops surrendered or fled, and those that fought were quickly overcome. On the morning of August 25, the 2nd Armored Division swept clear the western half of Paris while the 4th Infantry Division cleared the eastern part. Paris was liberated.
In the early afternoon, Choltitz was arrested in his headquarters by French troops. Shortly after, he signed a document formally surrendering Paris to de Gaulle’s provincial government. De Gaulle himself arrived in the city later that afternoon. On August 26, de Gaulle and Leclerc led a triumphant liberation march down the Champs d’Elysees. Scattered gunfire from a rooftop disrupted the parade, but the identity of the snipers was not determined.
De Gaulle headed two successive French provisional governments until 1946, when he resigned over constitutional disagreements. From 1958 to 1969, he served as French president under the Fifth Republic.
HISTORY Vault
 

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The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, officially ending the American Revolutionary War. The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire in North America and the United States of America, on lines "exceedingly generous" to the latter. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war.

This treaty and the separate peace treaties between Great Britain and the nations that supported the American cause—France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic—are known collectively as the Peace of Paris. Only Article 1 of the treaty, which acknowledges the United States' existence as free, sovereign, and independent states, remains in force.
 

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On this day of History, September 11th, 2001, the most massive attack against the United States occurred, far grater than the Pearl Harbor Attack on December 7th, 1941. This was not just an attack on America, it was an attack against all of Western Civilization. Still, today, we find ourselves fighting the pure evil shit that they are and all on this site should recognize it has brought the Legion and all of Western Civilization, into this 19-years long war against Muslim extremism. Recently, the Legion lost members of this fight in the Sahel, a bitter blow I too feel. But know this, we have brought this fight to those cowardly Jihadist bastard fucks that hide behind women and children, schools and hospitals launching attacks the fight. The payment for their aggrieved actions was revisited on them 100 fold. I have ZERO Remorse for what we brought to them, and if I had my way, as most Marines would have, there would have been Biblical Destruction brought to bear.
 
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Joseph Cosgrove

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It was today 14th September 1939 that, the VS-300, the world's first practical helicopter, took flight at Stratford, Connecticut. Designed by Igor Sikorsky and built by the Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division of the United Aircraft Corporation, the helicopter* was the first to incorporate a single main rotor and tail rotor design.
Born in 1889 in Kiev, Russian Empire, Sikorsky left France for the USA in May 1919.

He will, in my opinion, be most remembered (other than his aeronautical genius) for this quote: "According to the laws of aerodynamics, the bumblebee can't fly either, but the bumblebee doesn't know anything about the laws of aerodynamics, so it goes ahead and flies anyway."

*Helicopter:
a type of aircraft which derives both lift and propulsion from one or more sets of horizontally revolving overhead rotors. It is capable of moving vertically and horizontally, the direction of motion being controlled by the pitch of the rotor blades. Source - Definitions from Oxford Languages
 
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Today on October 5th 1789:

1789 French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the 'March on Versailles' to confront Louis XVI about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism,* demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris**.
The women's march began three months after the storming of the Bastille, in the markets of Paris amid anger at the price of and scarcity of bread***. It began with a woman beating a marching drum to rally the women. Shortly afterwards, they made the local churches ring their bells. Before long the women were ransacking Paris' city hall, the HĂ´tel de Ville, for weapons and intent on marching to Versailles itself, 13 km away.

By the time the marchers had reached Versailles six hours later their numbers had swelled to ten thousand with men and soldiers joining them. They occupied the National Assembly and broke into the palace killing a few guards and nearly capturing Marie Antoinette.

They forced King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to appear to hear their grievances and only abandoned their protests when the king and queen agreed to abandon Versailles for Paris.

* Basically, Promulgate means to to widespread and Feudalism is where the Lord of the manor owned all the land.

** The King & Marie Antoinette and his court had taken up residence in Versailles (the Palace which was transformed from Louis XVIII's chateau by Louis XIV , also known as the Sun Sing) see Louis â–¶ XIV and the city of the same name. Basically the people were convinced, quite rightly, that the King and & MA were out of touch with reality. To the point where one of the King's counsellor's explained to the King and queen that peasants were restful because they had no bread to eat. To which Marie Antoinette replied, 'let them eat cake'. Not because she was a snotty nosed Austrian b$tch :unsure:;):whistle:, but because she was so far away from the real the world.

***This is a very important point to take note of. Peasants were paying nearly half their wages to buy bread for their families. Prices of wheat were so high that in 1775 it led to what was to become known as the flour war, which were sporadic riots because of the price of grain.
It should be remembered that in those days bread was the staple diet of the poor, much as the potato was to the Irish. rumors were rife that the nobility were going to torch the wheat fields to keep the peasants poor.
 
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C'est vraiment interessent. I know there will be a show about the revolution on french in Netflix on 14 October I hope to have some spare time to see it, Im heading out towards the gate very soon
I think that the queen sayin" if there is no bread let them eat cake" pretty sure it was brioche instead of cake if i'm not wrong. I'ts a very famous quote.Qu'ils mangent de la brioche
Sorry I accidentally did not replied on the thread
 
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Price of wheat and bread were extremely high that year because of an Iceland volcanic eruption causing a black out
Death's that year, all over Europe was extremely high er than usual
 
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1602128173688.png

In October 1918, during World War I, Alvin York was one of many thousands of American soldiers fighting on the French front. On October 8, Cpl. York and a number of others were sent to infiltrate a German machine gun position.

After sneaking in, they captured a large group of enemy soldiers. While contending with their prisoners, German machine gun fire killed 6 Americans, putting the newly promoted York in charge.

York himself attacked the machine gun position. With exceptional marksmanship he killed at least 25 enemy soldiers himself in the battle, including shooting dead six Germans with a pistol who rushed at him with bayonets after his rifle ran out of ammo. The German officer in charge of the position tried to kill him but ran out of ammunition himself, offering then to surrender his unit.

York returned to post with 132 prisoners. His actions made him an instant hero, and earned him an immediate promotion. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.

 

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but before that in 1899 South African Boers declare war on Great Britain.



Interesing fact, South Africa as we know it today wasn't the South African Republic that along with the Orange Free State declared war on the Brits. At that time in History South Africa could be divided into 4 parts, the Natal Colony, the Cape Colony (both of which were part of the British Empire) and the two "Boer" republics, namely the South African Republic and the Orange Free state. The South African Republic of those days basically encompassed an area known as the Transvaal, Modern Day parts of Limpopo, North West, Northern Cape, Gauteng and Mpumalanga.
 
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Today 1884 Greenwich in London established as the universal time meridian of longitude or GMT. Not to be confused with the date of 22nd October, which is the date that 25 other other countries adopted it.
I used to know all the following by heart when I was in the 3rd company REP because I was studying for my Permis Hauturier or high seas boat license.
In case anyone is too busy to read further it should be noted that GMT is has been replaced by UCT=
Universal Time Coordinated
Prior to 1972, this time was called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) but is now referred to as Coordinated Universal Time or Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is a coordinated time scale, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM).
If you are still reading this, you may be interested to note that 0 degrees longitude is actually 102 metres out.

1602559885606.png




Time Zone History of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom started using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as its standard time in 1880. It remained the base of civil time in the world until 1972.

The Shepherd Gate Clock on the wall at the Royal Observatory Greenwich.

The Shepherd Gate Clock showed GMT first.
©iStockphoto.com/zoranm
The United Kingdom was among the first countries to use a standard time for the whole country, replacing the practice of each place keeping its own local mean time.
The EU wants to scrap DST. What about Brexit?
“Railway Time”
With the introduction of the railway, travel became faster. With every station keeping its own local mean time, the need for a synchronized time arose.
The first railway company to implement a common time for all stations, appropriately named “Railway Time,” was the Great Western Railway in November 1840. By 1847, most railways were using “London Time,” the time set at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
In 1847, the Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) be adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. On December 1, 1847, the London and North Western Railway, as well as the Caledonian Railway, adopted “London Time,” and by 1848 most railways had followed.

Unofficial GMT
By 1844, almost all towns and cities in Britain had adopted GMT, though the time standard received some resistance, with railway stations keeping local mean time and showing “London Time” with an additional minute hand on the clock.
In 1862, the Great Clock of Westminster, popularly known as Big Ben, was installed. Though not controlled by the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, it received hourly time signals from Greenwich and returned signals twice daily.
Standard Time Adopted
However, it was not until 1880 that the British legal system caught up with the rest of the country. It had stuck to local mean time for years, leading to oddities such as polls opening at 08:13 (8:13 am) and closing at 16:13 (4:13 pm) during some elections.
With the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act (43 & 44 Vict.), Greenwich Mean Time was legally adopted throughout the island of Great Britain on August 2, 1880. Ireland replaced Dublin Mean Time with GMT in 1916.
GMT World Standard
In 1884 GMT was adopted as the international standard for civil time at the International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C., USA. It remained the standard until 1972 when it was replaced with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC is still primarily based on the solar time on the prime meridian (0° longitude) near the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
British Summer Time (BST)
The English have not only pioneered standard time. It was also an Englishman who was responsible for the invention of Daylight Saving Time (DST), or summer time, as it is commonly known as in the UK.
In 1907, English builder William Willett published a pamphlet called The Waste of Daylight, campaigning to advance clocks at the beginning of the spring and summer months and to return to GMT in the autumn. He wanted to encourage people to get out of bed earlier in summer.
Willett spent the rest of his life fighting for his time-shifting scheme but died of influenza before DST was implemented.
Rejected Bill
The 1908 Daylight Saving Bill was the 1st attempt in the UK to move clocks forward 1 hour in summer. The idea was to provide more daylight hours after work for the training of the Territorial Army, to reduce railway accidents, and to reduce lighting expenses. The House of Commons rejected the Bill.
However, across the Atlantic a British colony in Canada made history. On July 1, 1908, the residents of Port Arthur, Ontario, today's Thunder Bay, turned their clocks forward by 1 hour to start the world's first DST period.
Wartime Energy Saver
In 1916, during World War I, Germany was the 1st country in the world to use DST nationwide, and the UK followed just weeks later. To save energy and help the war effort, the Summer Time Act 1916 advanced the clocks in the UK for 1 hour from May 21 until October 1 in the same year.
Summer time, or DST, proved so popular that it was named British Summer Time (BST) and the seasonal practice kept.
The pros and cons of DST
“British Double Summer Time”
There have been periods in UK history where DST was 2 hours ahead of standard time. This is known as “British Double Summer Time” (BDST), “Double Summer Time,” or “Double British Summer Time.”
During World War II the UK went on an extended DST period from February 25, 1940 to October 7, 1945, effectively adding 1 hour to the time zone (UTC+1). During the DST period in the summer, another hour was added to the time zone (UTC+2).
There was another period of BDST in 1947, which was brought on by severe fuel shortages in the country.
3 Years of Summer Time
In a trial known as the British Standard Time experiment, the UK kept Daylight Saving Time hours permanently from February 1968 to November 1971. Although the experiment resulted in fewer traffic incidents because darkness fell 1 hour later on the clock, it was found that there was a slight increase in incidents in the darker morning hours. The experiment was abandoned in 1972 because of its unpopularity—particularly in the north of the country, where days are generally shorter.
Summer Time All Year Round?
Over the past few decades, there have been frequent unsuccessful attempts in the UK parliament to make changes to the current system. Campaigners for the return to “British Double Standard Time,” or a permanent British Summer Time, argue that an extra hour of light in the afternoon could mean fewer road accidents, more leisure time, and a boost to tourism and energy efficiency.
  • In 2010, the UK government discussed “Single / Double Summer Time,” where the local time is 1 hour ahead of GMT during the winter and 2 hours in the summer.
  • The Daylight Saving Bill 2010-12 proposed to put the UK on permanent BST, but it was not passed in the House of Commons.
Time in the UK Today
Today the United Kingdom observes Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) during the winter months and British Summer Time (BST) in the summer months.
The country follows the same DST schedule as most of Europe, setting the clocks forward 1 hour on the last Sunday in March and back again 1 hour on the last Sunday in October.
 
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Also: Sandringham Time

Sandringham Time (ST) was the inspired idea of King Edward VII who altered the clocks on his estate at Sandringham in Norfolk to half an hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. This was the official time on the estate between 1901 and 1936.
Sandringham was bought by the then Prince of Wales in 1862 for the princely sum of ÂŁ220,000. He bought it as a private retreat away from London where he could indulge his passion for hunting.
It was this passion for outdoor pursuits that led to the introduction of Sandringham Time, and not the rumoured lack of timekeeping on the part of his wife, Princess Alexandra, who was constantly late!
Prince Albert Edward married Princess Alexandra of Denmark on 10th March 1863, and they began their married life at Sandringham. They made many alterations and improvements to the estate, including having the old house demolished and rebuilt to meet the needs of their growing family.
One of the main activities at Sandringham was shooting. The Prince of Wales loved outdoor sports and came up with the idea of Sandringham Time to make the most of the winter daylight hours for shooting.
He ordered all the clocks on the estate to be set half an hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. Sandringham Time was also adopted at Windsor Castle and Balmoral.
Even after his accession to the throne in 1901, Edward continued to make improvements to the house and estate. Following his death in 1910, Sandringham was left to Queen Alexandra, who continued to live there until her death in 1925.

The tradition of Sandringham Time however continued after Edward’s death and throughout the reign of George V. It was the new king’s favourite residence: “Dear old Sandringham, the place I love better than anywhere in the world.”
This however led to some confusion during the final hours of George’s life (he died at Sandringham on 20th January 1936) and Edward VIII abolished ST on his accession in 1936.
Sandringham has remained a favourite retreat for the Royal Family. George V made the first ever Christmas broadcast to the Empire on 25th December 1932 from Sandringham. The Queen also made her first televised Christmas broadcast from the library at Sandringham in 1957. Traditionally, the Queen spends every Christmas with the Royal Family at Sandringham – but not on Sandringham Time!
 
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