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On this day

Joseph Cosgrove

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Today 1918 US Army mess cook Private Albert Gitchell of Fort Riley, Kansas becomes the first documented case of Spanish flu; start of worldwide pandemic killing 50-100 million


November 15, 1918 — Brevig Mission is a tiny ocean-side settlement in Alaska which, in 1918, had 80 adult inhabitants. During the five-day period starting November 15, 1918, 72 of them were killed by the influenza pandemic then raging across the world.


It is significant for two reasons. First, the number of deaths in the village shows the ferocity and extensive reach of this epidemic. Second, because the victims were buried (and preserved) in permafrost conditions scientists were able, years later, to study the virus in detail.

It is estimated that 40 million people died in the First World War between 1914 and 1918. In that final year of the war the great influenza pandemic took hold and was to cause possibly 50 million fatalities, some estimates claiming a global death toll as high as 100 million.

No pandemic before or since has resulted in deaths on such a scale. Tragically, many soldiers who survived the horrors of trench warfare then fell victim to the influenza scourge.

It is commonly referred to as “the Spanish flu” epidemic but Spain is highly unlikely to have been the source. Wartime censors in the UK, Germany, the United States and France, anxious not to lower morale, played down the numbers of victims. But there were no restrictions on reporting the figures for Spain, which had taken no part in the war. So the belief grew that seemingly badly hit Spain was the epicentre of the disease.

The 1918 pandemic came in three waves. During the first, in the early part of the year, deaths were relatively low. The second wave, which began in August, was much more serious, the virus having mutated to a considerably aggressive form and October was the deadliest month of the whole pandemic.

Those between the ages of 20 and 40 were the most vulnerable, the virus so savage that a victim might show no symptoms in the morning but be dead by nightfall.

The third wave in the spring of 1919 was more lethal than the first but less so than the second.

An unusual characteristic of the virus was the high death rate among healthy young adults. But after the lethal second wave peaked in late 1918 new cases of infection dropped abruptly and the virus eventually burnt itself out.

Many factors contributed to the virulence of the 1918 pandemic. The world was at war and large numbers of troops stayed in close contact. No diagnostic tests existed; in fact, doctors didn’t know flu viruses existed.

Even if they had known, vaccines did not exist, antibiotics had not been invented and no antiviral drugs were available. On top of that, there was no such thing as intensive care or mechanical ventilation.

Businesses, though, were not slow to offer so-called remedies. Products including Lifebuoy soap, Oxo, Aspirin, quinine, opium, turpentine, iodine, ammonia, cinnamon, cocoa, disinfectant and even cigarettes were all promoted as having properties that could either prevent the flu or ward it off.

As the years passed, scientists were keen to discover the virus’s secrets so that new vaccines and treatments for future pandemics could be developed.

In 1951, Johan Hultin, a 25-year-old Swedish microbiologist, went to Brevig Mission hoping to find traces of the virus frozen within the tissues of villagers buried there. He failed, but returned 46 years later in 1997 with other scientists and unearthed the remains of a woman, aged about 30, whom he named “Lucy”.

Traces from “Lucy’s” lungs allowed researchers to completely analyse the critical gene structures of the 1918 virus, revealing that it originated in birds and mutated to infect people.

Scientists called it “an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin."

Three more pandemics would occur before Coronavirus would send the world spinning in 2020. They were: the 1957 H2N2 pandemic “Asian flu” causing 1.1 million deaths worldwide; the 1968 H3N2 pandemic “Hong Kong flu” with 1 million deaths; and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic "swine flu” with up to 575,000 deaths.

Putting it all in perspective, according to America’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the “flu season” in the United States generally runs from late fall into spring. In a typical year, more than 200,000 Americans are hospitalised for flu-related complications, and over the past three decades there have been up to 49,000 flu-related deaths annually.

The question remains as to whether a devastating pandemic on the scale of 1918 could occur in modern times. Many experts think so.

Richard Gunderman, Professor of Medicine at Indiana University, wrote in the Smithsonian Magazine in 2020:

“For the foreseeable future, viral epidemics will remain a regular feature of human life.

“But today scientists know more about how to isolate and handle large numbers of ill and dying patients, and physicians can prescribe antibiotics, not available in 1918, to combat secondary bacterial infections. To such common-sense practices as social distancing and hand-washing, contemporary medicine can add the creation of vaccinations and anti-viral drugs.

“As a society, we can only hope that we have learned the great pandemic’s lessons sufficiently well to quell the current Covid-19 challenge.”
 

Joseph Cosgrove

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which brings us to our next post:

2020 COVID-19 declared a pandemic by the head of the World Health Organization Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus*, with 121,564 cases worldwide and 4,373 deaths.
* Yes the very same one who nominated President Robert Mugabe as a World Health Organization (WHO) goodwill ambassador.

nothing better to do cropped.png WTF are are you talking about goodwill ambassador, my @rse! **

In December 2019, an outbreak of an unknown virus causing pneumonia-like symptoms was discovered in the Chinese city of Wuhan. This new coronavirus (technically named SARS-CoV-2; the disease caused by the virus is COVID-19) is thought to have originated at a 'wet market' in the city, where various animals, both live and dead, were sold. This was similar to how the SARS outbreak, also a coronavirus, started in 2002.

Doctors in Wuhan were at first admonished by police for reporting a new virus to their colleagues, before the Chinese government informed the World Health Organization of the mysterious infection on December 31. Among these doctors was Li Wenliang, who helped blow the whistle on the infection, before later dying of it in hospital.

COVID-19 spread around the world rapidly and led to vast and severe global economic disruption. Many countries moved into strict lockdowns to prevent the spread of the virus, and at one point as many as 99.4% of the student population across the entire planet was affected by school closures on a national or local level. These lockdowns had a severe impact on business; in the span of three weeks in the United States, almost 17 million people applied for unemployment benefits.

Vast numbers of events were postponed or cancelled due to the pandemic, including the Olympic Games, which were postponed to 2021. Other concerns have arisen out of the pandemic, including the spread of misinformation online and incidents of racism against people of Asian ethnicity.

The United Nations described the pandemic as the greatest test the world has faced since World War II.

** I kid you not Grumpy Cch
goodwill ▶️ambassador :whistle::ROFLMAO:

 
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Anniversary : Monday 17 March 18OO.

The RN warship HMS Queen Charlotte caught fire off the island of Capraia in the Tuscan archipelago. The crew was unable to extinguish the flames and the ship blew up with the loss of 673 officers and men. RIP.
 

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On this day 23 March 1989, I marched across the Parade Deck at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego California, Platoon 3002, India Company, 3rd Recruit Training Battalion, 3rd Recruit Training Regiment. Wow 32-years ago and seems as if it were yesterday.
 

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Paris island ?
Hell no! MCRD San Diego, San Diego, California. Parris Island is in South Carolina, (where they train female Marines) they have 4th Battalion,, NO INTEGRTED PLATOONS. So, now, they have for the 1st time ever, stood up a Battalion of female recruits to train there.

The trick of San Diego, which the ladies will soon find out, during 2nd phase you are moved 40 miles north to Camp Pendleton. Here, Camp Pendleton, you get hard, broken, or come back to San Diego with the strength you failed to realize in yourself, and you are reborn Hard Corps.

But the mountains at Pendleton are brutal and so areas there will make you get hard.
 

Renard.E

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Hell no! MCRD San Diego, San Diego, California. Parris Island is in South Carolina, (where they train female Marines) they have 4th Battalion,, NO INTEGRTED PLATOONS. So, now, they have for the 1st time ever, stood up a Battalion of female recruits to train there.

The trick of San Diego, which the ladies will soon find out, during 2nd phase you are moved 40 miles north to Camp Pendleton. Here, Camp Pendleton, you get hard, broken, or come back to San Diego with the strength you failed to realize in yourself, and you are reborn Hard Corps.

But the mountains at Pendleton are brutal and so areas there will make you get hard.
Tyler?
 

Joseph Cosgrove

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It was today in 1722 Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, ends tax on men with beards.
With such a title, I just had to look into the the story behind it,

1617676125269.png
THEY MIGHT BE SCRATCHING THEIR chins in surprise. Archaeologists in Russia have recently stumbled upon a 1699 coin issued to mark compliance with the “Beard Tax,” which Tsar Peter the Great had introduced the year before.

The beard tax policy required men who wished to keep their beards to pay up—or be shaved by the police. In return they received tokens like the one recently found (copper, while wealthier types—who also paid more—got silver), which got them a pass from authorities. The coin—embossed with lips, a curving mustache and a groomed beard, as well as “money paid” in Russian—was one of 5,000 historic coins found in the remains of a 17th-century building in the western Russian city of Pskov in 2016. The archaeologists only recently identified the beard tax token, and it is one of the oldest ever found, according to Elena Salmina of the
Archaeological Centre of Pskov Region.

Peter instituted the tax upon his return from a tour of Western Europe, where he saw nary a furry chin. Beards had fallen out of favor in Europe over the course of the 17th century, explains beard historian Christopher Oldstone-Moore, in conjunction with the rise of absolute monarchy—best exemplified by Louis XIV of France. A close shave had become a way of expressing a strict adherence to the edicts of an absolute monarch, one with a court full of obsequious gestures of discipline and order. For the young Tsar, shaving his countrymen became an integral part of his broader efforts to remake Russia in the image of Britain, Holland, and France.
But Oldstone-Moore, from Wright State University and author of Of Beards and Men: The Revealing History of Facial Hair, suggests that Peter was doing more than emulating other royal courts. “Peter needed people to show that they were loyal to him, not to the church,” he says. Indeed, one of the issues dividing Eastern Orthodoxy from the Catholic Church was facial hair: Shaving had become canon law for Catholic priests, while their Orthodox counterparts saw more piety in remaining hirsute. By getting Russian men to shave, Peter sought to trim the church’s influence and grow his own.

But Oldstone-Moore, from Wright State University and author of Of Beards and Men: The Revealing History of Facial Hair, suggests that Peter was doing more than emulating other royal courts. “Peter needed people to show that they were loyal to him, not to the church,” he says. Indeed, one of the issues dividing Eastern Orthodoxy from the Catholic Church was facial hair: Shaving had become canon law for Catholic priests, while their Orthodox counterparts saw more piety in remaining hirsute. By getting Russian men to shave, Peter sought to trim the church’s influence and grow his own.
 

dusaboss

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It was today in 1722 Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, ends tax on men with beards.
With such a title, I just had to look into the the story behind it,

View attachment 6889
THEY MIGHT BE SCRATCHING THEIR chins in surprise. Archaeologists in Russia have recently stumbled upon a 1699 coin issued to mark compliance with the “Beard Tax,” which Tsar Peter the Great had introduced the year before.

The beard tax policy required men who wished to keep their beards to pay up—or be shaved by the police. In return they received tokens like the one recently found (copper, while wealthier types—who also paid more—got silver), which got them a pass from authorities. The coin—embossed with lips, a curving mustache and a groomed beard, as well as “money paid” in Russian—was one of 5,000 historic coins found in the remains of a 17th-century building in the western Russian city of Pskov in 2016. The archaeologists only recently identified the beard tax token, and it is one of the oldest ever found, according to Elena Salmina of the
Archaeological Centre of Pskov Region.

Peter instituted the tax upon his return from a tour of Western Europe, where he saw nary a furry chin. Beards had fallen out of favor in Europe over the course of the 17th century, explains beard historian Christopher Oldstone-Moore, in conjunction with the rise of absolute monarchy—best exemplified by Louis XIV of France. A close shave had become a way of expressing a strict adherence to the edicts of an absolute monarch, one with a court full of obsequious gestures of discipline and order. For the young Tsar, shaving his countrymen became an integral part of his broader efforts to remake Russia in the image of Britain, Holland, and France.
But Oldstone-Moore, from Wright State University and author of Of Beards and Men: The Revealing History of Facial Hair, suggests that Peter was doing more than emulating other royal courts. “Peter needed people to show that they were loyal to him, not to the church,” he says. Indeed, one of the issues dividing Eastern Orthodoxy from the Catholic Church was facial hair: Shaving had become canon law for Catholic priests, while their Orthodox counterparts saw more piety in remaining hirsute. By getting Russian men to shave, Peter sought to trim the church’s influence and grow his own.

But Oldstone-Moore, from Wright State University and author of Of Beards and Men: The Revealing History of Facial Hair, suggests that Peter was doing more than emulating other royal courts. “Peter needed people to show that they were loyal to him, not to the church,” he says. Indeed, one of the issues dividing Eastern Orthodoxy from the Catholic Church was facial hair: Shaving had become canon law for Catholic priests, while their Orthodox counterparts saw more piety in remaining hirsute. By getting Russian men to shave, Peter sought to trim the church’s influence and grow his own.
Interesting article. I knew about it, but I didn't knew about tokens. Glad that you didn't find some cold war view on event which describe it as whim of a mad ruler with intention of extracting money from his vassals.
In fact (as article says) it was part of cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment. And to trying to reduce reduce the influence of the church, but I don't think that wasn't working that way
 

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I didn't know about the tokens, but didn't he ordered, on some banquet or similar - entire court to be shaven with only one razor? It was a disciplinary measure and he was "no nonsense" type of ruler....
On one account, he ordered an anotomy collection of some sort ( from England, me thinks?). When it arrived, the collection was ruined because his sailors drank all the formaldehyde from the jars in which it was kept. Ahhh good times... 😂
 

Joseph Cosgrove

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From which Port did the Titanic make it's last stop before leaving for NY

nothing better to do cropped.png a f@cking iceberg :ROFLMAO: :LOL::love::ROFLMAO::LOL:
No, an iceberg isn't considered a port.

It was on the 11th of April 1912 RMS Titanic leaves Queenstown, Ireland, for NY

The Titanic departed from Southampton, England on April 10, 1912. It then stopped at the French port of Cherbourg and the Irish port of Queenstown to pick up more passengers. It left Queenstown and began its fateful trip across the Atlantic Ocean on April 11, 1912.
 

Joseph Cosgrove

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On this day, 11th April 1783 Hostilities formally cease in the American Revolutionary War. Which is some 7 years after America declared its independence.
from the 4 July until the 9th of Sept 1776, it was known as the United Colonies of America.

I'm actually watching a mini series on John Adams (2nd president) at the moment.
 

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